The small cushions of fluid that are found near joints are called bursae. Bursae add another layer of protection to tendons, muscles, and joints. Therefore, an injury to one
of these small sacs can cause considerable pain with movement. Most commonly, such an injury is the inflammation of a bursa, which is called bursitis.
Bursitis occurs most often in the joints located around the shoulder, hip or elbow, though any bursae in other joints can be affected as well.
Symptoms include swelling from inflammation, possible redness, and a variable degree of pain, possibly leading to limitation of joint movement.
Arthritis in the elbow is a result of the deterioration of the cartilage between the bones in the shoulder. This lack of cushion between the bones could cause friction and increase the possibility of the development of bone spurs, leading to a degree of pain that might necessitate shoulder replacement.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint arthritis affects the area of the shoulder between the scapula and clavicle. The AC joint works in conjunction with the glenohumeral joint to provide a full range of motion in the shoulder. Arthritis in this joint could disrupt that movement. Both of these types of arthritis could be brought on by overuse, injury, or rheumatoid disease and are more predominant in older adults.
Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
Lateral epicondylitis can be the result of inflammation or overuse which causes tears in the tendon located on the outside of the elbow. Symptoms include pain on the outside of the elbow as well as in the wrists and/or forearm, swelling, numbness, and
tenderness. Severe cases may result in decreased mobility.